# 13. Representation Issues¶

## 13.1. Operational and Representation Aspects¶

SPARK defines several Boolean-valued aspects. These include the Async_Readers, Async_Writers, Constant_After_Elaboration, Effective_Reads, Effective_Writes, Extensions_Visible, Ghost, and Volatile_Function aspects. [Note that this list does not include expression-valued aspects, such as Default_Initial_Condition or Initial_Condition.]

The following rules apply to each of these aspects unless specified otherwise for a particular aspect:

1. In the absence of an aspect specification (explicit or inherited), the default value of the given aspect is False.

2. If the given aspect is specified via an aspect_specification [(as opposed to via a pragma)] then the aspect_definition (if any) shall be a static Boolean expression. [Omitting the aspect_definition in an aspect_specification is equivalent to specifying a value of True as described in Ada RM 13.1.1(15).]

3. The usage names in an aspect_definition for the given aspect are resolved at the point of the associated declaration. [This supersedes the name resolution rule given in Ada RM 13.1.1 that states that such names are resolved at the end of the enclosing declaration list.]

[One case where the “unless specified otherwise” clause applies is illustrated by

X : Integer with Volatile;

where the Async_Readers aspect of X is True, not False.]

Ada allows aspect specifications for package declarations and package bodies but does not define any aspects which can be specified in this way. SPARK defines, for example, the Initial_Condition and Refined_State aspects (the former can be specified for a package declaration; the latter for a package body). Ada’s usual rule that

The usage names in an aspect_definition [are not resolved at the point of the associated declaration, but rather] are resolved at the end of the immediately enclosing declaration list.

is applied for such aspects as though “the immediately enclosing declaration list” is that of the visible part (in the former case) or of the body (in the latter case). [For example, the Initial_Condition expression of a package which declares a variable in its visible part can (directly) name that variable. Simlarly, the Refined_State aspect specification for a package body can name variables declared within the package body.]

## 13.7. The Package System¶

Direct manipulation of addresses is restricted in SPARK. In particular, the use of address clauses or aspects to define the address of an object in memory is restricted in SPARK. If the address of an object X is specified to be the address of another object Y, using an adress clause of the form with Address => Y'Address, then X is said to be overlaid on Y. Both X and Y are said to be overlaid objects. The verification rules below impose restrictions on overlaid objects in SPARK. Other address clauses and aspects are not restricted; the onus is on the user to ensure that this is correct with respect to the program semantics of SPARK.

Legality Rules

1. The use of the operators defined for type Address are not permitted in SPARK except for use within representation clauses.

Verification Rules

1. If an object X is overlaid on an object Y, then the sizes of X and Y shall be known at compile-time and shall be equal.

2. If an object X is overlaid on an object Y, then the alignment of Y shall be an integral multiple of the alignment of X.

3. The type of an overlaid object shall be suitable as the target of an unchecked conversion (see Unchecked Type Conversions);

4. If the address clause of an object X is not of the form with Address => Y'Address for some object Y, then X shall be volatile.

5. If the address of an object Y is taken other than in an address clause of the form with Address => Y'Address, then Y shall be volatile.

6. If an object X overlays an object Y, then neither X nor Y shall be constituents of an abstract state.

## 13.8. Machine Code Insertions¶

Legality Rules

1. Machine code insertions are not in SPARK.

## 13.9. Unchecked Type Conversions¶

A subtype S is said to be suitable for unchecked conversion if:

• S is not of a tagged type, of an access type, of an immutably limited type, of a type with discriminants, or of a private type whose completion fails to meet these requirements.

• S is a scalar type, or if it is a composite type, the Size N of S is the sum of the size of the components of S, and all components of S are also suitable for unchecked conversion.

A subtype S is said to be suitable as the target of an unchecked conversion if it is suitable for unchecked conversion, and, in addition:

• S is not of a subtype that is subject to a predicate, or of a type that is subject to a type invariant.

• Given the Size N of S in bits, there exist exactly 2**N distinct valid values that belong to S and contain no invalid scalar parts. [In other words, every possible assignment of values to the bits representing an object of subtype S represents a distinct value of S.]

• If S is a composite type, all parts of S are also suitable as the target of an unchecked conversion.

[Note that floating-point types are not suitable as the target of an unchecked conversion, because NaN is not considered to be a valid value.]

Unchecked type conversions are in SPARK, with some restrictions described below. Although it is not mandated by Ada standard, the compiler should ensure that it does not return the result of unchecked conversion by reference if it could be misaligned (as GNAT ensures).

Verification Rules

1. The source and target subtypes of an instance of Unchecked_Conversion shall have the same Size.

2. The source and target subtypes shall be suitable for unchecked conversion and the target subtype should be suitable as the target of an unchecked conversion.

### 13.9.1. Data Validity¶

SPARK rules ensure the only possible cases of invalid data in a SPARK program come from interfacing with the external world, either through the hardware-software or Operating Systems integration, or through interactions with non-SPARK code in the same program. In particular, it is up to users to ensure that data read from external sources are valid.

Validity can be ensured by using a type for the target of the data read from an external source (or an unchecked type conversion when used to read data from external source) which is sufficient to encompass all possible values of the source. Alternatively the X’Valid (or X’Valid_Scalars for composite types) may be used to help determine the validity of an object.

The use of invalid values in a program (other than in a Valid, or Valid_Scalars attribute) may invalidate any proofs performed on the program.

## 13.10. Unchecked Access Value Creation¶

Legality Rules

1. The Unchecked_Access attribute is not in SPARK.

## 13.11. Storage Management¶

Legality Rules

1. Aspect specifications for the Storage_Pool and Storage_Size aspects are not in SPARK, nor are uses of the corresponding attributes. The predefined unit System.Storage_Pools is not in SPARK, nor is any other predefined unit that semantically depends on it. The pragma Default_Storage_Pool is not in SPARK.

## 13.12. Pragma Restrictions and Pragma Profile¶

Restrictions and Profiles will be available with SPARK to provide profiles suitable for different application environments.

## 13.13. Streams¶

Legality Rules

1. Stream types and operations are not in SPARK.