Cross Linux Topics¶
This appendix describes topics that are specific to the GNAT for Cross Linux.
Building a Cross Linux Application¶
To use GNAT Pro for Cross Linux the environment variable
to be set to the path containing the sysroot of your target. As background, the
sysroot is the root directory for the folders containing the system headers and
libraries provided by the target system. A typical sysroot would contain the
mysysroot: |--> lib: |--> lib64: (on 64-bit Linux) \--> usr: |--> include: |--> lib: \--> lib64: (on 64-bit Linux))
At a minimum the sysroot should contain glibc 2.5 or greater.
Please refer to your Embedded Linux distribution on how to obtain a sysroot
corresponding to your target. GNAT Pro supports both single architecture
sysroots and Debian-style multiarch sysroots. Please note the Ubuntu cross
compiler toolchain provided by the
crossbuild-essential-* packages do
not provide a sysroot useable by GNAT Pro.
If you have trouble obtaining a sysroot, it is possible to build one by copying the target libraries from the target to your host. For instance, if you are developing with a ppc64-linux target, you could do the following to build a sysroot directory on your host:
$ mkdir ./sysroot $ mkdir ./sysroot/usr $ scp -rp my-ppc64-linux-target:/usr/include ./sysroot/usr/ $ scp -rp my-ppc64-linux-target:/usr/lib ./sysroot/usr/ $ scp -rp my-ppc64-linux-target:/usr/lib64 ./sysroot/usr/ $ scp -rp my-ppc64-linux-target:/lib ./sysroot/ $ scp -rp my-ppc64-linux-target:/lib64 ./sysroot/
To use that sysroot, you can then export
$ export ENV_PREFIX=`pwd`/sysroot
To build the basic
Hello world example on ppc64-linux, you can
then invoke gprbuild with the following options:
$ gprbuild --target=powerpc64-generic-linux-gnu hello.adb
WARNING: Some Linux systems provide linker scripts, e.g. libc.so, that may point to other shared libraries using a full path that starts with a double-slash ‘//’. While this does not cause any problem on GNU/Linux hosts, on Windows hosts, such paths are interpreted as UNC path. This should not prevent sysroot to be expanded, however Windows users creating sysroots from a live target system may want to fix them to avoid the latency of a network search.
Debugging an Application on Cross Linux¶
This section describes the steps needed to run the Cross Linux debugger.
The debugging solution that GNAT provides on this target consists of three tools:
gdbserver: A debugging server on target, which provides a low-level interface to control the debugged program.
gdb: The debugger itself, run on the host; it connects to GDBserver and allows the user to control the debugged program through a command-line interface.
gnatstudio: GNAT Studio, which provides a graphical front-end for gdb.
To start a debugging session, you first need to start the program under
control of GDBserver. For example, if the board has an internet
connection to the development host, and assuming the Internet hostname
of the board is
myboard, your application is named myapp, and
the port on which GDBserver will wait for requests is port 2345,
the command would be:
myboard> gdbserver myboard:2345 myapp
This starts the execution of your program on the target, and then suspends it at the very beginning. Once this is done, GDBserver then waits for the debugger to connect.
You can now start the debugger. In GNAT Studio, in the
Languages tab of
the project properties page, you would specify the name of the debugger (e.g.
powerpc64-generic-linux-gnu-gdb). You would then be able to start this
debugger with the command:
<No Main Program>.
Alternatively, you can run the debugger gdb from the command line.
You are now ready to connect the debugger to the GDB server:
(gdb) target remote myboard:2345
Once the debugger is connected to the GDBserver, you can debug your program as usual (insert breakpoints, inspect variables and memory, etc); remember that the program’s execution has already been started by GDBserver, and thus use “continue” to resume the program’s execution, rather than “run”. Below is an example of a debugging session where the user is interested in debugging a function called some_function, and therefore, after connecting to the target, inserts a breakpoint and then resumes his program until reaching that breakpoint:
(gdb) target remote myboard:2345 ... (gdb) break some_function ... (gdb) continue ...
Note that the debugger needs access to the exact shared libraries
being used by your program. By default, what the debugger does
is automatically download from the target a copy of each shared
library the program uses. It is recommended to keep the default,
as this ensures that the debugger’s knowledge of the shared libraries
matches exactly the libraries actually installed on the target,
which is crucial. However, if you are debugging on a target
with a slow connection, the download may be taking long enough that
you would prefer to maintain on the host a copy of the target
system’s shared library (the sysroot described above), and then
tell the debugger to use your sysroot instead. For this, before
connecting to GDBserver, use the following debugger command (where
SYSROOT_PATH should be replaced by the path where
the sysroot is located on the host):
(gdb) set sysroot SYSROOT_PATH ...
For further information about the debugger or the GDB server, please refer to the GDB User’s Manual.