6. Memory: Monitoring memory usage¶
The GNAT compiler allocates and deallocates all memory either through type-specific debug pools that you have defined yourself, or defaults to the standard malloc and free system calls. However, it calls those through an Ada proxy, in the package System.Memory that you can also replace in your own application if need be.
gnatcoll provides such a possible replacement. Its implementation is also based on malloc and free, but if you so chose you can activate extra monitoring capabilities to help you find out which parts of your program is allocating the most memory, or where memory is allocated at any moment in the life of your application.
This package is called GNATCOLL.Memory. To use it requires a bit of preparation in your application:
You need to create your own version of
s-memory.adbwith the template below, and put it somewhere in your source path. This file should contain the following bit of code:
with GNATCOLL.Memory; package body System.Memory is package M renames GNATCOLL.Memory; function Alloc (Size : size_t) return System.Address is begin return M.Alloc (M.size_t (Size)); end Alloc; procedure Free (Ptr : System.Address) renames M.Free; function Realloc (Ptr : System.Address; Size : size_t) return System.Address is begin return M.Realloc (Ptr, M.size_t (Size)); end Realloc; end;
You then need to compile your application with the extra switch -a passed to gnatmake or gprbuild, so that this file is appropriately compiled and linked with your application
If you only do this, the monitor is disabled by default. This basically has zero overhead for your application (apart from the initial small allocation of some internal data). When you call the procedure GNATCOLL.Memory.Configure to activate the monitor, each memory allocation or deallocation will result in extra overhead that will slow down your application a bit. But at that point you can then get access to the information stored in the monitor
We actually recommend that the activation of the monitor be based on an environment variable or command line switch of your application, so that you can decide at any time to rerun your application with the monitor activated, rather than have to go through an extra recompilation.
All allocations and deallocations are monitor automatically when this module is activated. However, you can also manually call GNATCOLL.Memory.Mark_Traceback to add a dummy entry in the internal tables that matches the current stack trace. This is helpful for instance if you want to monitor the calls to a specific subprogram, and know both the number of calls, and which callers executed it how many times. This can help find hotspots in your application to optimize the code.
The information that is available through the monitor is the list of all chunks of memory that were allocated in Ada (this does not include allocations done in other languages like C). These chunks are grouped based on the stack trace at the time of their invocation, and this package knows how many times each stack trace executed each allocation.
As a result, you can call the function GNATCOLL.Memory.Dump to dump on the standard output various types of data, sorted. To limit the output to a somewhat usable format, Dump asks you to specify how many blocks it should output.
Debugging dangling pointer Using a dangling pointer can lead (and usually it does) to no crash or no side effects. Frequently, freed buffers still contains valid data and are still part of pages owned by your process. Probably, this occurs more often on linux compare to windows.
Writing 0 or 0xDD pattern when a memory is freed will be (because of the exception that will be thrown) detected at the first usage of a freed buffer. The crash occurrence will be higher and less random. This makes solid reproducer more easy to build.
For dangling pointer usage debugging, use Memory_Free_Pattern parameter when calling GNATCOLL.Memory.Configure procedure.
- Memory usage
Blocks are sorted based on the amount of memory they have allocated and is still allocated. This helps you find which part of your application is currently using the most memory.
- Allocations count
Blocks are sorted based on the number of allocation that are still allocated. This helps you find which part of your application has done the most number of allocations (since malloc is a rather slow system call, it is in general a good idea to try and reduce the number of allocations in an application).
- Total number of allocations
This is similar to the above, but includes all allocations ever done in this block, even if memory has been deallocated since then.
- Marked blocks
These are the blocks that were created through your calls to GNATCOLL.Memory.Mark_Traceback. They are sorted by the number of allocation for that stacktrace, and also shows you the total number of such allocations in marked blocks. This is useful to monitor and analyze calls to specific places in your code