13. Representation Issues

13.1. Operational and Representation Aspects

SPARK 2014 defines several Boolean-valued aspects. These include the Async_Readers, Async_Writers, Constant_After_Elaboration, Effective_Reads, Effective_Writes, Extensions_Visible, Ghost, and Volatile_Function aspects. [Note that this list does not include expression-valued aspects, such as Default_Initial_Condition or Initial_Condition.]

The following rules apply to each of these aspects unless specified otherwise for a particular aspect:

  1. In the absence of an aspect specification (explicit or inherited), the default value of the given aspect is False.
  2. If the given aspect is specified via an aspect_specification [(as opposed to via a pragma)] then the aspect_definition (if any) shall be a static Boolean expression. [Omitting the aspect_definition in an aspect_specification is equivalent to specifying a value of True as described in Ada RM 13.1.1(15).]
  3. The usage names in an aspect_definition for the given aspect are resolved at the point of the associated declaration. [This supersedes the name resolution rule given in Ada RM 13.1.1 that states that such names are resolved at the end of the enclosing declaration list.]

[One case where the “unless specified otherwise” clause applies is illustrated by

X : Integer with Volatile;

where the Async_Readers aspect of X is True, not False.]

Ada allows aspect specifications for package declarations and package bodies but does not define any aspects which can be specified in this way. SPARK 2014 defines, for example, the Initial_Condition and Refined_State aspects (the former can be specified for a package declaration; the latter for a package body). Ada’s usual rule that

The usage names in an aspect_definition [are not resolved at the point of the associated declaration, but rather] are resolved at the end of the immediately enclosing declaration list.

is applied for such aspects as though “the immediately enclosing declaration list” is that of the visible part (in the former case) or of the body (in the latter case). [For example, the Initial_Condition expression of a package which declares a variable in its visible part can (directly) name that variable. Simlarly, the Refined_State aspect specification for a package body can name variables declared within the package body.]

13.2. Packed Types

No restrictions or additions.

13.3. Operational and Representation Attributes

No restrictions or additions.

13.4. Enumeration Representation Clauses

No restrictions or additions.

13.5. Record Layout

13.6. Change of Representation

No restrictions or additions.

13.7. The Package System

Legality Rules

  1. The use of the operators defined for type Address are not permitted in SPARK 2014 except for use within representation clauses.

13.8. Machine Code Insertions

Legality Rules

  1. Machine code insertions are not in SPARK 2014.

13.9. Unchecked Type Conversions

The validity of unchecked type conversions is not currently checked by SPARK 2014 the onus is on the user to ensure that the value read from an unchecked type conversion is valid (see Data Validity).

13.9.1. Data Validity

Currently SPARK 2014 does not check for data validity. It is therefore up to users to ensure that data read from external sources and values from unchecked type conversions are valid.

Validity can be ensured by using a type for the target of the data read from an external source or an unchecked type conversion which is sufficient to encompass all possible values of the source. Alternatively the X’Valid (or X’Valid_Scalars for composite types) may be used to determine the validity of an object.

The use of invalid values in a program (other than in a Valid, or Valid_Scalars attribute) may invalidate any proofs performed on the program.

13.10. Unchecked Access Value Creation

Legality Rules

  1. As access types are not supported in SPARK 2014, neither is this attribute.

13.11. Storage Management

Legality Rules

  1. These features are related to access types and not in SPARK 2014.

13.12. Pragma Restrictions and Pragma Profile

Restrictions and Profiles will be available with SPARK 2014 to provide profiles suitable for different application environments.

13.13. Streams

Legality Rules

  1. Stream types and operations are not in SPARK 2014.

13.14. Freezing Rules

No restrictions or additions.