14. VFS: Manipulating Files

Ada was meant from the beginning to be a very portable language, across architectures. As a result, most of the code you write on one machine has good chances of working as is on other machines. There remains, however, some areas that are somewhat system specific. The Ada run-time, the GNAT specific run-time and GNATColl all try to abstract some of those operations to help you make your code more portable.

One of these areas is related to the way files are represented and manipulated. Reading or writing to a file is system independent, and taken care of by the standard run-time. Other differences between systems include the way file names are represented (can a given file be accessed through various casing or not, are directories separated with a backslash or a forward slash, or some other mean, and a few others). The GNAT run-time does a good job at providing subprograms that work on most types of filesystems, but the relevant subprograms are split between several packages and not always easy to locate. GNATColl groups all these functions into a single convenient tagged type hierarchy. In addition, it provides the framework for transparently manipulating files on other machines.

Another difference is specific to the application code: sometimes, a subprogram needs to manipulate the base name (no directory information) of a file, whereas sometimes the full file name is needed. It is somewhat hard to document this in the API, and certainly fills the code with lots of conversion from full name to base name, and sometimes reverse (which, of course, might be an expansive computation). To make this easier, GNATColl provides a type that encapsulates the notion of a file, and removes the need for the application to indicate whether it needs a full name, a base name, or any other part of the file name.

14.1. Filesystems abstraction

There exists lots of different filesystems on all machines. These include such things as FAT, VFAT, NTFS, ext2, VMS,.... However, all these can be grouped into three families of filesystems:

  • windows-based filesystems

    On such filesystems, the full name of a file is split into three parts: the name of the drive (c:, d:,...), the directories which are separated by a backslash, and the base name. Such filesystems are sometimes inaccurately said to be case insensitive: by that, one means that the same file can be accessed through various casing. However, a user is generally expecting a specific casing when a file name is displayed, and the application should strive to preserve that casing (as opposed to, for instance, systematically convert the file name to lower cases).

    A special case of a windows-based filesystems is that emulated by the cygwin development environment. In this case, the filesystem is seen as if it was unix-based (see below), with one special quirk to indicate the drive letter (the file name starts with “/cygwin/c/”).

  • unix-based filesystems

    On such filesystems, directories are separated by forward slashed. File names are case sensitive, that is a directory can contain both “foo” and “Foo”, which is not possible on windows-based filesystems.

  • vms filesystem

    This filesystem represents path differently than the other two, using brackets to indicate parent directories

A given machine can actually have several file systems in parallel, when a remote disk is mounted through NFS or samba for instance. There is generally no easy way to guess that information automatically, and it generally does not matter since the system will convert from the native file system to that of the remote host transparently (for instance, if you mount a windows disk on a unix machine, you access its files through forward slash- separated directory names).

GNATColl abstracts the differences between these filesystems through a set of tagged types in the GNATCOLL.Filesystem package and its children. Such a type has primitive operations to manipulate the names of files (retrieving the base name from a full name for instance), to check various attributes of the file (is this a directory, a symbolic link, is the file readable or writable), or to manipulate the file itself (copying, deleting, reading and writing). It provides similar operations for directories (creating or deleting paths, reading the list of files in a directory,...).

It also provides information on the system itself (the list of available drives on a windows machine for instance).

The root type Filesystem_Record is abstract, and is specialized in various child types. A convenient factory is provided to return the filesystem appropriate for the local machine (Get_Local_Filesystem), but you might chose to create your own factory in your application if you have specialized needs (Remote filesystems).

14.1.1. file names encoding

One delicate part when dealing with filesystems is handling files whose name cannot be described in ASCII. This includes names in asian languages for instance, or names with accented letters.

There is unfortunately no way, in general, to know what the encoding is for a filesystem. In fact, there might not even be such an encoding (on linux, for instance, one can happily create a file with a chinese name and another one with a french name in the same directory). As a result, GNATColl always treats file names as a series of bytes, and does not try to assume any specific encoding for them. This works fine as long as you are interfacing the system (since the same series of bytes that was returned by it is also used to access the file later on).

However, this becomes a problem when the time comes to display the name for the user (for instance in a graphical interface). At that point, you need to convert the file name to a specific encoding, generally UTF-8 but not necessarily (it could be ISO-8859-1 in some cases for instance).

Since GNATColl cannot guess whether the file names have a specific encoding on the file system, or what encoding you might wish in the end, it lets you take care of the conversion. To do so, you can use either of the two subprograms Locale_To_Display and Set_Locale_To_Display_Encoder

14.2. Remote filesystems

Once the abstract for filesystems exists, it is tempting to use it to access files on remote machines. There are of course lots of differences with filesystems on the local machine: their names are manipulated similarly (although you need to somehow indicate on which host they are to be found), but any operation of the file itself needs to be done on the remote host itself, as it can’t be done through calls to the system’s standard C library.

Note that when we speak of disks on a remote machine, we indicate disks that are not accessible locally, for instance through NFS mounts or samba. In such cases, the files are accessed transparently as if they were local, and all this is taken care of by the system itself, no special layer is needed at the application level.

GNATColl provides an extensive framework for manipulating such remote files. It knows what commands need to be run on the remote host to perform the operations (“cp” or “copy”, “stat” or “dir /a-d”,...) and will happily perform these operations when you try to manipulate such files.

There are however two operations that your own application needs to take care of to take full advantage of remote files.

14.2.1. Filesystem factory

GNATColl cannot know in advance what filesystem is running on the remote host, so it does not try to guess it. As a result, your application should have a factory that creates the proper instance of a Filesystem_Record depending on the host. Something like:

type Filesystem_Type is (Windows, Unix);
function Filesystem_Factory
  (Typ  : Filesystem_Type;
   Host : String)
  return Filesystem_Access
   FS : Filesystem_Access;
   if Host = "" then
     case Typ is
       when Unix =>
         FS := new Unix_Filesystem_Record;
       when Windows =>
         FS := new Windows_Filesystem_Record;
     end case;
     case Typ is
       when Unix =>
         FS := new Remote_Unix_Filesystem_Record;
         Setup (Remote_Unix_Filesystem_Record (FS.all),
                Host      => Host,
                Transport => ...); *--  see below*
       when Windows =>
         FS := new Remote_Windows_Filesystem_Record;
         Setup (Remote_Windows_Filesystem_Record (FS.all),
                Host      => Host,
                Transport => ...);
     end case;
   end if;

     (FS.all, Encode_To_UTF8'Access);
   return FS;
end Filesystem_Factory;

14.2.2. Transport layer

There exists lots of protocols to communicate with a remote machine, so as to be able to perform operations on it. These include protocols such as rsh, ssh or telnet. In most of these cases, a user name and password is needed (and will likely be asked to the user). Furthermore, you might not want to use the same protocol to connect to different machines.

GNATColl does not try to second guess your intention here. It performs all its remote operations through a tagged type defined in GNATCOLL.Filesystem.Transport. This type is abstract, and must be overridden in your application. For instance, GPS has a full support for choosing which protocol to use on which host, what kind of filesystem is running on that host, to recognize password queries from the transport protocol,.... All these can be encapsulated in the transport protocol.

Once you have created one or more children of Filesystem_Transport_Record, you associate them with your instance of the filesystem through a call to the Setup primitive operation of the filesystem. See the factory example above.

14.3. Virtual files

As we have seen, the filesystem type abstracts all the operations for manipulating files and their names. There is however another aspect when dealing with file names in an application: it is often unclear whether a full name (with directories) is expected, or whether the base name itself is sufficient. There are also some aspects about a file that can be cached to improve the efficiency.

For these reasons, GNATColl provides a new type GNATCOLL.VFS.Virtual_File which abstracts the notion of file. It provides lots of primitive operations to manipulate such files (which are of course implemented based on the filesystem abstract, so support files on remote hosts among other advantages), and encapsulate the base name and the full name of a file so that your API becomes clearer (you are not expecting just any string, but really a file).

This type is reference counted: it takes care of memory management on its own, and will free its internal data (file name and cached data) automatically when the file is no longer needed. This has of course a slight efficiency cost, due to controlled types, but we have found in the context of GPS that the added flexibility was well worth it.